This is a sharp, humorous critique of book tradition of piano instruction and the current music education system, particularly in the United States. Author, Walter Ponce, is an internationally acclaimed pianist, pedagogue, and Professor Emeritus at the State University of New York and Distinguished Professor Emeritus at UCLA (where he was Director of Keyboard Studies). While the title of the book may seem exaggerated, Ponce illustrated some real tyrants of keyboard pedagogy and the dysfunction of the teacher-student relationship. It has given me a fresh perspective from which to consider my own journey of studying, performing and teaching of the last 30 years.
Ponce’s ideology of teaching is to find the best suit for individual students. He encourages students to participate in masterclasses and take advantage of outside learning opportunities. He believes strongly in freedom in education valuing students’ opinions and he adapts such idea into his teaching. The tradition of tyranny began with Muzio Clementi and is characterized by excessive technical exercises and abusive, didactic teaching style. Known as “the Father of Piano,” Clementi was a piano manufacturer, composer, performer, teacher, publisher, and true representative of the Enlightenment Period. His influence was significant in the piano world of the 19th century. Many composers used his keyboard sonatas as models of compositions. Beethoven ranked Clementi’s compositions highly, playing them and using them for teaching. Clementi published a pioneering piano method book, and Ponce has a strong opinion about it.
1.Method Books and Drilling Exercises
In the book, Ponce relentlessly questions the reasons of using method books and drilling exercises. Clementi’s method book, Gradus ad Parnassum, also known as The Art of Playing the Piano, written in 1817, became the model for instruction books that would follow, including those written by Carl Czerny, Cramer, and Charles-Louis Hanon, which we continue to use today. According to Ponce, Clementi’s legacy is the establishment of the “mentality that valued technical considerations over musical substance.” In Gradus ad Parnassum, the one hundred studies provide comprehensive drills for pianists to explore different figurations and patterns, as well as compositions which focus on contrapuntal and chordal playings. The approach of Gradus ad Parnassum, is the “backbone of all post-C.P.E. Bach methods.” Ponce argues, the finger-only practice, addressed in the studies, is not only a waste of time but also causes painful physical problems. The traditional long hours of practicing drills and exercises, promoted by Clementi, even result in “disruptions of the mental connection.” Ponce refers to this “excessive (practice) time with monotonous and uninteresting exercises” is a negative transfer of learning- it enables students to reach the precision but it “inevitably leads a player to lose sight of the musical goals of a piece.” Instead, he believes a good musical mind helps facilitate a good technique.
2. Authoritarian Image of Teachers
“Abusive behavior, absolute obedience, and large-scale indoctrination became the norm in piano teaching of the nineteenth century-regrettably still practiced today in some parts of the world.”
Clementi was a famous piano teacher during his time. He and his followers, including Czerny, established a traditional instruction method in which the teachers assume absolute authority over their pupils. In chapter six of the book subtitled The Legacy and Religion, Ponce illustrates this authority thusly, “the foundation for its durability can be found on these biblical tenants: I will surrender my life to the Lord…..We need only substitute ‘my teacher’ for ‘the Lord’.” (I laughed out loud when I was reading it.) Traditional piano teaching, according to Ponce, is based on humiliation and abuse. Ponce regards the period between 1850 and 1950 as the “Age of Meanness”. Piano teachers, ranging from local to famous teachers, all expressed total authority over students. As a result, students suffered from a suppression of cognitive thinking and they were forced to constantly adapt to their teachers’ demands under numerous fears, insults, and threats. To illustrate the far reach of tyranny, Ponce uses examples of Arthur Rubinstein, Sergi Rachmaninoff and Claudio Arrau and their days as piano students who were afraid of and controlled by their teachers. He provides anecdotes to show Clementi’s negative influence on other teachers, including Friedrick Wieck, Adele Marcus and Theodore Leschetizky. Ponce even describes his own unpleasant experiences working with celebrated teachers as a student. Such abusive teaching became a concern and has largely improved since 1970 but Ponce claims such teaching still exists.
Qualities of Good Teachers
What are the qualities of a piano teacher? Ponce praises the teaching approaches of Franz Liszt, Artur Schnabel and Heinrich Neuhaus who emphasizes the expressions of music rather than excessive practice of technical studies. Ponce has listed 10 indicators for us to identify a good teacher. For instance, he suggests a good teacher has to be able to perform. A good teacher also emphasizes the importance of sight-reading skills instead of solely focusing on finger skills. Students and parents should be cautious to choose teachers who constantly gives themselves the credit and boast about the fast progress of their students. Ponce believes skills take patience and time to grow. Playing music should also come from our expressive inner self students have the rights to learn what they truly love. Therefore, teachers should always be flexible and open-minded of finding the right genres and repertoire for their students. As a piano student and a piano teacher, I hope this book may lead to a more optimistic teaching environment for both teachers and students.
Born in Hong Kong, Fanny is currently pursuing a doctorate degree of Piano performance and pedagogy at the University of Kansas under the instruction of Dr. Scott McBride Smith. She received her master degrees in Piano Performance and Musicology from the University of Missouri- Kansas City (UMKC). Fanny lives in Kansas City where she maintains a busy performance and teaching schedule. As a musicologist, she has presented her papers at the conferences of the College Music Society (2019), Britain and the World (2019), and the Midwest Music Research Collective (2018).