Laments continued to be very special works – rarely written and always filled with a very high emotional intensity. Elegies, on the other hand, were more of a late-19th-century phenomenon. Rather than heart-felt cries of despair, they were more like commentaries on a sad situation. The emotion was kept at a distance.
In music, an elegy is rarely a funeral piece but a work of a darker and more somber nature. In the medieval period, an elegy was about death, but by the time of the Romantic period, the elegy had become a personal reflection upon death. The Romantic period had a preoccupation with the idea of death and it’s no surprise that the elegy in music became so common from the late 19th century.
The French composer Jules Massenet wrote an eloquent elegy as part of the incidental music for a French verse drama called Les Érinnyes. In Act 2, Electra pours libations on the tomb of Agamemnon to the music called Invocation. When it was published separately as a work for cello and orchestra, it was called Élégie and is a wonderful introduction to elegiac music.
Massenet: Élégie (Harriet Krijgh, cello; Rhine Philharmonic State Orchestra; Gustavo Gimeno, Conductor)
We hear the crying lines in the cello, but at the same time, we’re being held back from the emotion – we are just observers.
Tchaikovsky’s troubled childhood and problems in St. Petersburg came to a good conclusion when he was sent to Moscow to study under Nichols Rubinstein. At the death of Rubinstein, Tchaikovsky wrote his Piano Trio in A minor and we can hear from the very first movement, the same kind of crying lines that we will come to associate with elegies.
Tchaikovsky: Piano Trio in A minor, Op. 50: I. Pezzo elegaico (Pierre Amoyal, violin; Frédéric Lodéon, cello; Pascal Rogé, piano)
When he heard of the death of Tchaikovsky in October 1893, the young Russian composer Sergei Rachmaninov immediately started work on his memorial to the great man.
Rachmaninov’s Trio Elegiac No. 2 is based on some of Tchaikovsky’s ideas that he used in his own Trio Op. 50. So in this elegy based on an elegy, Rachmaninov makes his own statement about Tchaikovsky.
The trio begins with the tolling of the death bell in the piano while the strings play melodies based on orthodox religious chant. The movement gradually builds until it almost takes on the character of a piano concerto. Again, we have the crying idea in the cello, but we also have the church bells in the descending motif that we first heard in the lament.
Rachmaninov: Trio elegiac No. 2 in D minor, Op. 9: I. Moderato – Allegro vivace (Trio Portici)
The following movements all contribute to this testimony to Tchaikovsky, but at the same time, to the up-and-coming new composer we are discovering in Rachmaninov.
- Sounds of Sorrow: Elegies and Laments III As the 19th century idea of death as a close and regular companion faded away, the elegy in the 20th century began to change character.
- Sounds of Sorrow: Elegies and Laments I In classical poetry, an Elegy is a mournful, melancholic, or plaintive poem, sometimes written as a lament for the dead and other times covering sad topics such as war.
- Musical Tributes: Paganiniana, Schubertiana, Gershwiniana and Bachiana Brasileira Honoring Paganini, Schubert, Bach and Gershwin
- Claude Debussy and His Circle of Friends II Debussy’s love affairs, and friendship with Chausson, Stravinsky and more
- Claude Debussy and His Circle of Friends The composer’s relationship with journalists, publishers and fellow musicians
- Leonard Bernstein: Seven Anniversaries (1942-3) Honoring his family, close friends and colleagues with compositions